Mandibular angle reduction is a popular and efficient procedure widely used to alter the facial contour. The primary surgical instruments, the reciprocating saw and the round burr, employed in the surgery have a common feature: operating at a high-speed. Generally, inexperienced surgeons need a long-time practice to learn how to minimize the risks caused by the uncontrolled contacts and cutting motions in manipulation of instruments with high-speed reciprocation or rotation. A virtual reality-based surgical simulator for the mandibular angle reduction was designed and implemented on a CUDA-based platform in this paper. High-fidelity visual and haptic feedbacks are provided to enhance the perception in a realistic virtual surgical environment. The impulse-based haptic models were employed to simulate the contact forces and torques on the instruments. It provides convincing haptic sensation for surgeons to control the instruments under different reciprocation or rotation velocities. The real-time methods for bone removal and reconstruction during surgical procedures have been proposed to support realistic visual feedbacks. The simulated contact forces were verified by comparing against the actual force data measured through the constructed mechanical platform. An empirical study based on the patient-specific data was conducted to evaluate the ability of the proposed system in training surgeons with various experiences. The results confirm the validity of our simulator.
Wang Q., Chen H., Wu W., Jin H. and Heng P. Real-time Mandibular Angle Reduction Surgical Simulation with Haptic Rendering. Information Technology in Biomedicine, Volume PP, Issue 99, 2012. [doi: 10.1109/TITB.2012.2218114]