Surgery simulation plays an important role in surgery planning, surgeon training, and telemedicine. A long-standing problem in this region is how to integrate coherent visual illustrations to deformation. In this paper, we present a new non-photorealistic surgery simulation system that combines force visualization and dynamic pencil-stroke illustration. We estimate the elastic force field in real-time and integrate it with the contact force to form a combined force map. Then, our rendering module is able to dynamically compute the principal directions on deforming organ models and apply color coded, pencil-style strokes onto the model for illustrating deformations. We implement these modules on GPU using NVidia’s CUDA. Our system can faithfully and coherently reveal geometric deformation of organs under the force field.
Rui Hu, Kenneth E. Barner, Jingyi Yu and Karl V. Steiner. A Non-Photorealistic Surgery Simulation System. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics. Volume 173, 2012. [doi: 10.3233/978-1-61499-022-2-193]